Confession: Why, if it is so good for the soul, is it so hard?

It is hard to admit to God, to ourselves, and especially to another person the exact nature of our wrongs, but why?

James 5:16 says, “Therefore, confess your sins to each other and pray for each other, so that you may be healed. The prayer of a righteous man is powerful and effective.”

Christ has made it possible for us to go directly to God for forgiveness, but confessing our sins to each other still has an important place in the life of the church:

(1) If we have sinned against an individual, we must ask him or her to forgive us. Our unforgiveness actually hinders our prayers and God’s forgiving of our own sins!

(2) If we need loving support as we struggle with a sin, we should confess that sin to those who are able to provide that support. Two are stronger than one and a cord of three is not easily broken.

(3) If we doubt God’s forgiveness, after confessing a sin to Him, we may wish to confess that sin to a fellow believer for assurance of God’s pardon. Guilt and shame run deep with sin and often the last phase of the healing process is helping someone else walk through a similar trial, season, and/or circumstance.

In Christ’s Kingdom, every believer is a priest to other believers and the Christian’s most powerful resource is communion with God through prayer. While many see prayer as a last resort, only to be tried when all else fails, this approach is completely backwards. Prayer should come first because God’s power is infinitely greater than ours, so it only makes sense to rely on it—especially because God encourages and tells us to do so.

We are as sick as our secrets and keeping our shortcomings, resentments, and sins from God is foolish because for starters, He already knows everything we have done and will do, and secondly because He has already declared us not guilty nor condemned, as soon as we turn to Him in repentance and cast our cares and burdens upon the Lord.

I believe the real issue arises when we are told to confess our sins to each other. Most of us know and still feel the sting of betrayal and constantly see people jockeying for position and capitalizing on the acquisition of information. With broken legs we chase perfection and it becomes a sick and twisted game of, “Do you know what so and so struggles with or did?” People then become defined by their mistakes and as a result, most people show up for church with their Sunday masks on and continue portraying a mere façade of truth and what is actually going on.

When we are able to confess our sins, we will discover the grace and mercy of God. God’s grace is receiving something we do not deserve: salvation & forgiveness, and His mercy is not getting what we do deserve: condemnation & judgment.

Romans 3:23-24 explains, “All have sinned… yet now God declares us not guilty… if we trust in Jesus Christ, who… freely takes away our sins.”

When we can arrive at a place where we have no more guilt and shame from our past wrongs, we are ready to face the truth, and to allow God to ease the pain. While pain is a cruel and effective teacher, our misery in the process is optional, because God replaces our pain with ease for His yoke is easy and His burden is light.

The last step in finding peace through confession comes by stopping the blame game and instead choosing to trust God. We have gotten very good at rationalizing and justifying certain areas of sin, to the point where we can say, “This ______ sin is for their own or the greater good.” While this may sound crazy at first glance, I promise you the progression from thought to action and from action to stronghold does not take long and it is a depraved and warped process one can easily get themselves wrapped up in.

Our secrets isolate us and leave us vulnerable to attack. This is exactly where the enemy wants us and like a predator seeking to steal, kill, and destroy the weakest of the herd, he lies in wait for the exact opportunity to inflict the most harm, in an effort to take us out.

The key to rejoining the community and fellowship with God is humility and transparency. While we are created in the image of God, we live in a fallen world, one in which we are called to be salt and light. Only when we are comfortable in our own skin, by discussing the hurts, habits, and hang-ups of our past, will we have the opportunity to come alongside those walking through similar situations. Only by offering them love, acceptance, and forgiveness will we be in a place to then comfort those in need and point them to Christ, the perfecter of our faith and the Holy Spirit, our comforter and counselor.

Lastly, only once we take the plank out of our own eye will we be able to see the world through the lens of the cross and only by maintaining our communion with God will our hearts break for what breaks His. To confess and be forgiven is so freeing, while harboring unforgiveness makes us a prisoner to those we choose not to forgive, much like resentment leads one to drink poison, all the while expecting the other person to die. Instead, we must give it all to God, because His Word promises He will use ALL things for the good of those who love the Lord and are called according to His purpose and He swears by His own name because there is no name higher!

Advertisements

Theology Themes of Isaiah

Isaiah’s ministry spanned fifty years as he prophesied and addressed the sins of the people during the reign of four different kings. As a messenger of God’s covenant, one of Isaiah’s primary roles was to remind the people what God expected of them. The book has a coherent structure, which can be divided into two parts, but written by one author. The first half, chapters 1-39, focuses on God’s judgment of His people, while the second half, chapters 40-66, focuses on the salvation of God’s people. Another key difference is the first half deals more with the Assyrian crisis while the second half deals with the Babylonian crisis and resulting exile. Despite these calamities, an overarching theme throughout the book of Isaiah is God’s special relationship with the nation of Israel and the unfortunate need of judgment and exile to bring about the future restoration of God’s people.

GOD’S JUDGMENT AND SALVATION OF HIS PEOPLE

Michael Wilkins explains, “The people of Israel understood that God was using them as a people to fulfill the prophecies of Isaiah; however, the problem was Israel, as a nation, had failed in its mission and as a result had become a blind and deaf servant”[1] (Isaiah 42:18-25). God can use anyone and anything to accomplish His plan and during the first part of Isaiah, He uses the Assyrian army to confront the people’s sinfulness and bring about judgment and salvation. “Assyria was the rod of Yahweh’s anger and the staff in their hands was His fury” (Isaiah 10:5). In the second half of Isaiah, it would be the Babylon Empire that the Lord would use to pronounce judgment on Israel, but even before the exile took place in 586 B.C., the Lord planned to use Cyrus, the Persian king to allow the people to return home. As J. J. M. Roberts asserts, “Israel’s current predicament was due to the sins of her people (Isaiah 42:24-25). Their plight was well deserved, their coming salvation was due simply to Yahweh’s graciousness, and the appropriate response was to return to Yahweh in trust and confidence”[2] (Isaiah 43:22-44:2). Ultimately, the hope and salvation of Israel would only come through their suffering, judgment, and exile.

RESTORATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM

Barry Webb explains, “The transformation of Zion is both the literary link and formal key that helps us understand the message of Isaiah.”[3] In chapter one, Zion, the unfaithful prostitute is reduced, but in chapter two, Zion, Yahweh’s bride is exalted and taken back, following the divorce/exile. This dichotomy is a powerful reminder of God’s grace and the comparison being made is how old Jerusalem was equated with God’s judgment while the New Jerusalem was going to be a place of God’s blessing and a place where God establishes His kingdom forever. Roberts explains, “Isaiah’s transformation of the royal ideology and the Zion tradition became the wellspring from which the later messianic expectations and the hopes for a New Jerusalem [and] the conception of a heavenly Jerusalem and a transhistorical view of salvation that includes even the ultimate victory over death [arose].”[4]

After the purge, John Watts shows, “The important thing about Zion is her reputation as Yahweh’s dwelling. It is Yahweh’s house, the temple, which stands out, because He is present and active there.”[5] This is reminiscent of Isaiah’s vision again, as the glory of the Lord filled the temple. His holiness is overwhelming, as the seraphim are depicted covering their face and feet, calling out to one another, “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts, the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3). Watts adds, “Yahweh’s presence in the temple lifts its importance to supremacy and this has nothing to do with Israel or Judah, their kings or leaders. Purely because Yahweh is there, Zion attracts the other nations.”[6] Then the imagery of beating swords into plowshares and spears into pruning hooks is profound. Here, Geoffrey Grogan explains, “The issues that set nations against one another do not disappear automatically but are settled by the supreme Judge, whose decisions are accepted. Thus there is no uneasy calm but peace based on righteousness.”[7]

The coming kingdom of God and the future restoration of Israel are dominant themes. Gary Yates states, “God is going to bring the people back to their homeland; there is going to be the restoration of the Davidic Dynasty, through the Messiah; the temple will be rebuilt; and as the nations see how God blesses Israel, they will come to the Promise Land to worship God.”[8] Sin still had consequences, so as the children of Israel return home from the Babylonian exile, they find themselves impoverished and living under foreign oppression. It is here, Yates asserts, “If the return from exile is all there is, then Isaiah’s prophecies and promises are a disappointment at best and they are an outright failure at worst.”[9] Ultimately, the full restoration will not occur until they have fully returned to the Lord (Isaiah 56:1-7). The new heavens and new earth referenced in Isaiah 65 and the New Testament, (Hebrews 12:22-24) says the blessings and presence of God are being enjoyed now, but in the future there will come a time where God completely reverses the effects of the fall. This means death, violence, and wickedness will be replaced with life, love, and harmony and Isaiah recognized, as he looked to the future kingdom, some of these promises and blessings are being enjoyed now, but some are still yet to come.

LORD AS KING AND HOLY ONE OF ISRAEL

Roberts states, “If there is any one concept central to the whole book of Isaiah, it is the vision of Yahweh as the Holy One of Israel [and] Isaiah’s vision… left a lasting impression on the prophet’s ministry.”[10] Isaiah’s vision in chapter six is profound as the glory of the Lord filled the temple and this encounter would shape his entire ministry and message. Isaiah desperately wanted the nation of Israel to have a similar experience and encounter, so that they too would find themselves undone by their sinful lives.

Unfortunately, Israel had to learn the hard way, despite God’s sincere desire to enter into a relationship with His people. Instead of pouring out blessings, as a result of righteous behavior, the Lord would use the exile to purge all the unholy traits from the people. God is the one the people should have put their trust in exclusively, but the people, instead, chose to rely on political and military alliances for protection. The main issue throughout Isaiah was Israel’s failure to deal with its own spiritual apostasy and no alliance made with any other nation could protect them from the Lord’s wrath. The holiness of the Lord demanded a proper response from His children, but as Roberts explains, “If Israel refused to look to Yahweh, to trust in the quiet waters of Shiloah, God would send the raging waters of Assyria against them to reveal the vanity of their trust in human power”[11] (Isaiah 8:5-8).

LORD OVER ALL NATIONS

Roberts further illustrates how, “Before Yahweh would fight for Zion; He would fight against her (Isaiah 31:4-5). Jerusalem would be humbled and humiliated, but in the hour of her desperation, when Yahweh had cleansed her in the fiery judgment, God would intervene to save her from her arrogant enemies (Isaiah 31:4-5). Then Jerusalem would be exalted and glorified.”[12] While God used Assyria and Babylon as tools to purge Judah and Israel of sin, the very nations used by God would face judgment themselves because they failed to recognize Yahweh as Lord over all. When reading Isaiah 45, part of which focused on the fact that God is the one who “Forms light and creates darkness, the one who makes peace and creates calamity. I am the One who does these things.” This portion of Scripture is amazing, especially considering most people do not normally think that God has anything to do with the darkness. In fact, most people define darkness as the absence of light, so Isaiah is making a profound assertion here that God declares that He is even in the dark chaos of the world, and for this reason, followers can have peace, even in the darkness, because He is Lord over all. John Oswalt explains, “What Isaiah asserts is that God, as creator, is ultimately responsible for everything in nature, from light to dark, and for everything in history, from good fortune to misfortune. No other beings or forces are responsible for anything.”[13] Even in darkness and chaos, God is with every true follower, and the darkness will eventually give way to the light of day. “For the light has shone already into the darkness and the darkness cannot overcome it” (John 1:5).

FUTURE MESSIAH AND SUFFERING SERVANT

Instead of leading the people of other nations to Yahweh, the people of Israel often did the exact opposite by worshipping the false gods of other nations. In the midst of this apostasy, Isaiah promises that God would provide a solution to the problem, which was the raising up of an individual Servant who would restore the national servant, the nation of Israel. Richard Averbeck explains, “The Lord’s concern for the nations, not just Israel, is declared in the larger context in Isaiah 49:6-7; 56:6-7 and now the same sacrificial redemption and restoration applies to them as well.”[14] This means the Suffering Servant of Isaiah 53 brought redemption and restoration, as Averbeck says, “To the Jew first, but also to the Greek” (Romans 1:16). Roberts further explains, “The plan of salvation, centered in the vicarious death of Jesus Christ is dependent on [Second] Isaiah’s portrayal of the Suffering Servant, and the NT emphasis on the receptions of that salvation through faith picks up and continues the Isaianic demand for faith.”[15]

In light of the entire canon of Scripture, God still has a plan for the nation of Israel and while they were spiritually blind to the Suffering Servant’s arrival, Isaiah 61:1-3 indicates the first coming of Jesus began the restoration of Israel and the second coming will finish it. Jesus quoted these words in Luke 4:18-19 and as He read to the people in the synagogue, He stopped in the middle of 61:2 after the words, “The time of the Lord’s favor has come.” Rolling up the scroll, He said, “The Scripture you have just heard has been fulfilled this very day!” (Luke 4:21). While the world is now under God’s favor; His wrath is yet to come.[16] Robert Hughes and J. Carl Laney explain how Isaiah 61:1, “Revealed that the Messiah, who ministered salvation at His first coming, will also minister comfort for redeemed Israel at His second coming.”[17] By His death and resurrection, Jesus instituted and inaugurated a new phase of God’s kingdom, some of which is now, and some of which is still to come, when Christ returns.

CONCLUSION

While this student does not agree with Roger’s conclusion on the matter of multiple authors of Isaiah, nonetheless, Rogers does offer considerable insight on the overarching themes in the book that bears his name. Upon reading Isaiah, there is no denying the special relationship God had and still has with His children, but while they were supposed to be a light and witness for God, they fell victim to greed and apostasy. God wanted the best for them, yet the nations of Judah and Israel chose to find their own versions of “God’s best” outside of God’s will. As a parent punishes a child, Yahweh too is forced to pronounce judgment before He is able to provide salvation. This salvation ultimately finds its initial fulfillment in the arrival of the Suffering Servant, the Messiah, but even then, as Isaiah prophesied, “He would be despised and rejected by man” (Isaiah 53:3). The words written by the eighth century prophet are just as relevant today and much can be applied to nations, like America, by heeding what was revealed in the woe oracles against foreign nations. These declarations can directly be traced back to the Abrahamic Covenant, which God made with man and are unconditional promises by God. Christ is coming back, a future kingdom will be established forever, and the Lord will rule over all, as every knee will bow and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord (Isaiah 45:23; Philippians 2:10). In addition to Isaiah having multiple dominant themes, it also is the only Old Testament book to predict the virgin birth of Christ (7:14), the ministry of John the Baptist (40:3-5), and contains one the Old Testament’s clearest statements on the Trinity (48:16). Next to Deuteronomy, Isaiah presents the most detailed information on the person and work of God and also the Messiah’s role as both sacrificial lamb and ruling lion. Christ was obedient and empowered by the Father and He will return one day as the anointed one of the Lord and victorious warrior (63:1-6). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bock, Darrell L. and Mitch Glaser, eds. The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012.

Grogan, Geoffrey W. Isaiah, Volume 6: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986.

Hughes, Robert B. and J. Carl Laney. Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1990.

LaSor, William S., David A. Hubbard, and Frederic W. Bush. Old Testament Survey. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1996.

Life Application Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1988.

Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah Chapters 1-39. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976.

________. The Book of Isaiah Chapters 40-66. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976.

Roberts, J. J. M. “Isaiah in Old Testament Theology.” Interpretation 36, no. 2 (April 1982): 130-143. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed August 18, 2017).

Watts, John D. W. Isaiah 1-33. Word Biblical Commentary, Old Testament. Volume 24 “Act I: Like a Booth in the Vineyard, Chapters 1-6, Scene 1: In the Hall of the King of Heaven and Earth (Isaiah 1:2-2:4), Episode C: The Mountain of Yahweh’s House,” Edited by David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1985.

Webb, Barry G. The Message of Isaiah. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996.

Yates, Gary. “Isaiah and the Future Kingdom.” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, OBST 661, Course Content, Week Eight Video Presentation, 12:49, (accessed August 22, 2017).

[1] Michael J. Wilkins, “Isaiah 53 and the Message of Salvation in the Gospels,” in The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology, eds. Darrell L. Bock and Mitch Glaser (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012), 109-110.

[2] J. J. M. Roberts, “Isaiah in Old Testament Theology,” Interpretation 36, no. 2 (April 1982): 135-136. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed August 18, 2017).

[3] Barry G. Webb, The Message of Isaiah (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996), 42-46.

[4] Roberts, “Isaiah in Old Testament Theology,” 143.

[5] John D. W. Watts, Isaiah 1-33, Word Biblical Commentary, Old Testament, Volume 24 “Act I: Like a Booth in the Vineyard, Chapters 1-6, Scene 1: In the Hall of the King of Heaven and Earth (Isaiah 1:2-2:4), Episode C: The Mountain of Yahweh’s House,” eds. David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1985), 27.

[6] Watts, Isaiah 1-33, 27.

[7] Geoffrey W. Grogan, Isaiah, Volume 6: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986), 35.

[8] Gary Yates, “Isaiah and the Future Kingdom,” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, OBST 661, Course Content, Week Eight Video Presentation, 12:49, (accessed August 22, 2017).

[9] Ibid.

[10] Roberts, “Isaiah in Old Testament Theology,” 131.

[11] Ibid., 133.

[12] Roberts, “Isaiah in Old Testament Theology,” 137.

[13] John Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah Chapters 40-66. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976), 203.

[14] Richard E. Averbeck, “Christian Interpretations of Isaiah 53,” in The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology, eds. Darrell L. Bock and Mitch Glaser (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012), 60.

[15] Roberts, “Isaiah in Old Testament Theology,” 143.

[16] Life Application Study Bible, (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1988), 1187.

[17] Robert B. Hughes and J. Carl Laney, Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1990), 268.

 

God’s Rest & Hebrew’s 2nd Warning Passage

Hebrew's Rest

Those who forget the past are often condemned to repeat the same mistakes. This is the case in Hebrew’s second warning passage, as the author is trying to demonstrate, the promise of both blessing and rest is in immediate danger of being forfeited due to unbelief and hardened hearts. Using the failure at Kadesh Barnea (Numbers 20:1-13) and by citing how the Lord proclaimed, “They shall not enter my rest,” (Psalm 95:7-11) an intertextual affirmation is being made that the audience’s rebellion and unbelief are going to result in much worse wrath and consequences than simply not being able to enter the land of Canaan. While belief in God should naturally lead one to obey Him, those left to wander in the wilderness remained disobedient because they did not trust in God’s plan or His provision. After presenting the negative example of the wilderness generation, the author then presents the conditional clause, “If, indeed, we hold our original confidence firm to the end” (Hebrews 3:14). This was the author’s main objective and he includes himself in this address, as he attempts to motivate and exhort his audience to take the appropriate action and not make the same mistake as their ancestors had.

The proper exegesis of this passage will illustrate how the author of Hebrews warned his audience about the danger of developing an evil heart rooted in unbelief like the generation in the wilderness had done and the grave consequences that would result if they did not change their ways. By analyzing the historical, cultural, and literary context, and by examining the biblical content, a modern-day application for Christians today will be presented. Scripture cannot mean something today that it was not intended to mean for the original audience, so only by understanding the author’s intent and the original audience’s circumstances can believers today find meaning in Hebrew’s second warning passage.

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT

According to Leo Percer, the truth is no one knows definitively who wrote the book of Hebrews.[1] George Guthrie does explain the author of Hebrews, “Was a dynamic preacher, was knowledgeable of the Old Testament and its interpretation, was highly educated, and was a committed minister of Jesus Christ deeply concerned about the spiritual state of the group of believers [being] addressed.”[2] The early church believed Hebrews to be Pauline in nature; so early authors who were considered consisted of: Paul, Luke, Clement of Rome, and Barnabas. In more recent times, Priscilla, Jude, Apollos, Philip, and Silvanus have been added to that list. F. F. Bruce shows, “Clement of Alexandria, in his Hypotyposes, said that it was written by Paul for Hebrews in the Hebrew language, but that Luke translated it and published it for the Greeks; thus he endeavored to account for the similarity in style between Hebrews and the Lukan writings.”[3] However, Origen maintained, “But as to who actually wrote the epistle, God only knows the truth of the matter.” A major part of the exegesis of Scripture is determining who the author is, so it is troubling there is no definitive answer, but Gareth Cockerill further shows the author was:

A master of elegant Greek who understood the principles of rhetoric and oral persuasion as taught in the ancient world. He had a thorough knowledge of the OT and a clear understanding of how it should be interpreted in light of its fulfillment in Christ. He was well acquainted with the history of the people to whom he was writing and was deeply concerned lest they fail to persevere in their devotion to and public confession of Christ.[4]

It is this writer’s belief, Apollos seems to possess all the traits and skills outlined above. This too was the view of Martin Luther and Guthrie shows how Acts 18:24-28 describes “Apollos as a Jew from Alexandria, who was eloquent and thoroughly versed in Scripture. Furthermore, he was a pastor who had received the gospel from eyewitnesses of Jesus’ ministry (Hebrews 2:3), was at home in the Greek-speaking synagogues of the Mediterranean, and had close acquaintances from Italy (Hebrews 13:24).”[5]

As Guthrie asserts, “Hebrews was written in the mid-60s A.D., just prior to the extreme persecution of the Roman church under Nero.”[6] Guthrie arrives at this time period based upon several references in the text: (1) they had been Christians for awhile (Hebrews 5:11-6:3), (2) the believers had faced and persevered in a time of serious persecution in the past (Hebrews 10:32-34), and (3) they had yet to suffer martyrdom for the faith (Hebrews 12:4), but were now facing a more severe time of trial (Hebrews 11:35; 12:3, 7; 12:3, 12-13), in which some of their number were defecting.[7] Jason Whitlark adds, “Most interpreters recognize that Hebrews addresses a Christian community under pressure to compromise or give up altogether its exclusive confession and hope in Jesus Christ.”[8] It is against this backdrop of apostasy, the author of Hebrews addresses an audience on the verge of making a terrible decision to abandon their Christian faith. The main question raised by scholars regarding the date of authorship centers around there being no mention of the Temple being destroyed in A.D. 70. This event seems like an important event to record, especially considering the letter’s emphasis on Mosaic law ending and the present tense use of rituals referenced in Hebrews 9:6 and 13:10.

LITERARY CONTEXT

Leading up to this warning passage, the author of Hebrews has already presented Jesus as the second Moses, which then establishes the typological connection between Israel and the church. Bruce explains, “This typology was familiar to our author, and quite probably to his readers as well; he uses it, therefore, to warn them against giving up their faith and hope.”[9] As Peter Enns asserts, “The writer is not simply arguing for Christ’s superiority over Moses; he is preparing his readers for his exegesis of Psalm 95 by laying the foundation for his understanding of the church as the new wilderness community. As Moses led his people out of Egypt and through the desert, Jesus now leads His people through their wilderness.”[10] The author’s understanding of redemptive history allowed him to apply Psalm 95 relevantly for exposition and application because what once had applied to Israel now finds its full meaning with respect to the church. Only the faithful perseverance anticipated in the present can lead to the Sabbath rest promised in this pericope. As N. T. Wright explains, “The challenge becomes more urgent with the word ‘today,’ the point in the Psalm at which the quotation begins, and the point to which Hebrews returns several times, both in this passage and later.”[11] While chapter three continues the theme of Jesus being superior, here, Moses is treated with a little more respect than the angels and prophets were. The difference in this passage is Jesus is portrayed as a Son whereas Moses was treated as a faithful servant, which Jesus was also. Thus, while both were faithful servants, only Jesus was faithful as a Son and only Jesus was the head of the household. Additionally, while Moses was a representative of God to the people, the key difference was Aaron, his brother, was the one who functioned as the high priest of Israel. Percer illustrates, “The people this message was written to were feeling alone, vulnerable, afraid, overwhelmed and they wanted to run from their problem to find a comfortable place.”[12] With persecution and crisis imminent, the author wanted his audience to understand that Jesus too shared in the same emotions and temptations they were feeling. Percer describes, “The incarnation made possible a penetration into our situation as Jesus becomes our merciful and faithful High Priest.”[13]

The high Christology and priestly role of Jesus emphasized the complete and perfect work of Christ, which was a provision of God’s grace to His children. Buist Fanning shows how, “The second warning in the book is bracketed at beginning and end by references to Jesus’ High Priestly role. Jesus’ faithfulness as High Priest is the starting point for the portrayal of Him as the faithful Son over God’s house.”[14] This demonstrated the Hebrews could be faithful because Jesus remained faithful and the same holds true for Christians today. F. F. Bruce asserts, “When Jesus is designated as ‘the apostle and High Priest of our confession,’ He is marked out as being both God’s representative among human beings and their representative in the presence of God.”[15] Guthrie points out how this chapter demonstrates the importance of holding fast to the Christian faith, but “The entire clause found in 3:6 and 3:14 are, of course, conditional: We may be considered part of the people of God [only] if we hold fast to the Christian faith.”[16] Bruce adds, “Moses was a household servant exalted by virtue of his outstanding faithfulness to the post of chief administrator of God’s household; but Christ, the Son of God, through whom the universe was made and to whom it has been given by his Father as His heritage, is founder and inheritor of the household.”[17]

The interpretation of the warning passages in Hebrews remains a highly debated topic, especially amongst Calvinist-Reformed and Arminian traditions. B. J. Oropeza demonstrates, “The apparent inability of a second repentance for those who have fallen away from faith has ignited a long history of discussions and debates on the issue.”[18] The main question always seems to come back to: “Was the original audience genuine Christ-followers to begin with?” Oropeza explains, “Those who examine the passages with Reformed-Calvinistic perspectives [believe] the ones in danger of apostasy in Hebrews are not elect or ‘genuine’ believers. Likewise, those who approach the texts with Arminian theological agendas conclude the warnings evince a real possibility that believers can abandon salvation.”[19] As Percer remarks, “If all we had was Hebrews, we would all be Arminians.” The fact the writer includes himself in the warning passages serves to indicate the warnings did apply to genuine Christ-followers.

The concept of rest presented in Hebrews 4:1-13 is unique because it alludes to several events. In Psalm 95, the rest spoken of was what would be awaiting them once they reached their final destination. However, in this present passage, N. T. Wright explains, “The idea of God’s rest on the seventh day of creation comes into its own in a different way. Now, the writer links God’s own rest at the end of creation, suggesting that, since God was warning that the people might not enter into His rest, this implied that the promise of the land was meant to function for them like the rest which He had enjoyed after His six days of creation.”[20]

BIBLICAL CONTENT

When looking at the main ideas and themes of Hebrews, it is important to note the author uses “we” to associate himself with the recipients and it reads more like a sermon than a letter. The author also uses speaking and hearing, rather than writing and reading as his medium. Leon Morris notes, “Having shown that Scripture looks for a rest for God’s people, the author then proceeds to show that Israel of old did not enter that rest. The implication is that it is still available for others. And there is a warning: when God opens up an opportunity, that does not necessarily mean that those who have that opportunity will take it.”[21] It immediately becomes evident, the recipients were in a spiritual crisis, and so the author is speaking to them with purpose. First, he wants to encourage believers in the face of some present crisis and for them to stand firm in their faith. Second, he wants to warn Christians of the danger they face if they remain immature and refuse to go on in the knowledge of Christ. Third, he wants to warn Christians of the judgment of God that will occur if they fail to maintain their Christian faith. Fourth, he wants to encourage the Christians, by reminding them of the character of Jesus, who is their champion and High Priest, ordained by God.[22] Wright illustrates how, “Hebrews is concerned over the question of whether or not we continue to follow and trust Jesus, or whether we will be content to drift, with our initial belief fading away to a memory, and our hope dissolving like the energy of the snowbound walkers,”[23] and the same struggle exists today for believers. Much can be learned by how the author presented the history and the consequences that resulted from unbelief because God and His nature never change. Disobedience and unbelief always lead to apostasy, so the author remains focused on how Jesus Christ and the present choices being made are vital to maintaining right standing with God and paramount to avoiding the judgment their ancestors had faced in the wilderness.

Faithfulness and the lack of it are deeply rooted in the Old Testament, so the author now asks his listeners to not harden their hearts as those in the wilderness had done. Thomas Kem Oberholtzer shows how, “The author is drawing a parallel between the wilderness generation and his readers and this ‘falling away’ is the negative side of ‘holding fast.’ Holding fast assures one of being a partaker of Christ which includes: (1) sharing in the messianic joy; (2) having a part in dominion over creation; (3) and sharing in the heavenly calling.”[24] The events the author is alluding to are the exodus from Egypt, the wandering in the wilderness, and he also is drawing from Psalm 95:8-11, as Bruce explains how:

A later generation of Israelites was warned by the psalmist not to follow the bad example of their ancestors’ refusal to listen to God, lest disaster should overtake them in turn; and now a still later generation has the same warning impressed upon it by the writer to the Hebrews. Although the writer does not say so in so many words, it may well be that he saw a special significance in the ‘forty years’ of Ps. 95:10.[25]

 

The journey to the Promised Land should have only taken eleven days, but it took forty years because of the people’s lack of faith and trust in God and their disobedience. When the Israelites finally reached the outer boundaries of Canaan and sent spies to check out what God had already promised would be theirs; only Joshua and Caleb came back with good reports. When the people decided to ignore Joshua and Caleb’s report, the Lord swore in His wrath, “They shall not enter my rest.” The author of Hebrews is warning his listeners that they too must be careful to not make the same mistake. Oberholtzer explains, “The concept of rest includes: (1) a historical sense related to the Exodus generation and Joshua (Psalm 95; Joshua 21:44); (2) an eschatological sense related to the Exodus generation; and (3) the Sabbath rest related to the readers with its eschatological perspective (Genesis 2:2-3; Hebrews 4:9).”[26] Rest is one of the main themes of this warning passage and those who fail to persevere, as Oberholtzer asserts, “May result in temporal discipline and loss of future rewards and authority to rule with Jesus in the millennium”[27] (Hebrews 12:4-11).

After he reads this passage, he then exhorts them, calling them to do the same daily, because they will share in Christ only if they hold their confidence until the end. This passage again raises the question whether one can lose his or her salvation, so the author is now pleading with his listeners to not defect and be disobedient like those in the wilderness had done because if they do, they too shall not enter His rest. As Percer explains, “The Hebrews were on the precipice of a life and death decision, so they needed to remember their ancestor’s failure to hold fast and how they must now trust in God’s promised rest.”[28] Jesus came to give His followers rest and God has promised rest to those who obey His Word. The main principle of this passage is when God speaks through Scripture, the Holy Spirit, or the life of Christ; the only response on the part of the reader or listener should be one of bold confidence and not disobedience or defection. Guthrie explains, “The hearers are not to follow the example of those who fell in the desert, but are to hold firmly to their Christian confidence, keeping a soft heart and a vigilance against sin.”[29] Confidence in God’s plan and obedience are key principles to make sure believers do not fall away from the Christian faith.

APPLICATION

Christ was and is still over God’s house, so for Christians today, the same holds true. Jesus was tempted and suffered in every way imaginable, yet He remained faithful to the Father, as a Son and as the Suffering Servant. In a similar way, Christians today are sons and daughters of God and He calls every follower to hold on and keep a tight grip to their Christian faith, so it will not slip away. As Matthew Easter indicates, “The book of Hebrews provides some of the richest insights into the meaning of faith in the New Testament”[30] and reads much more like an exhortation or sermon/homily, rather than as a typical New Testament letter, as the recipients were facing a crisis of faith and were considering going back to Judaism and abandoning their Christian beliefs. Bruce demonstrates that, “From our author’s point of view deliberate disobedience to the living God was practical apostasy against Him, whether those guilty of it were Jewish or Gentile.”[31] Despite the failure of the wilderness generation, the book is written as a word of encouragement for the recipients to maintain their faith in Christ. God inspired the author to not only encourage, but also to confront the people and warn them of the danger they faced if they remained immature in faith and the judgment that would result if they did not turn back to Christ. By reminding the recipients of the character and nature of Jesus, the author encourages them to stand firm in their faith. Apostasy was the root issue and is much the same in today’s world as many followers of Christ are struggling with a crisis of faith. For people today, it is important to never compromise one’s faith based on persecution or being a part of the cultural minority. This message is timely with what is going on all over the world as Christians are being raped, tortured, and killed for their beliefs. The book of Hebrews speaks to these atrocities and dilemmas and provides wonderful application on how to deal with immense persecution, while maintaining one’s faith. God wants His children to rely on Him daily, like the manna from heaven, where God gave them just enough for that day, not the day after. Flowing out of this devotion to God should be the complete obedience and faith in His plan and provision.

Percer highlights how chapters three and four are meant to go together, since chapter three warns against having a hardened heart because they refused to trust and have faith in God and Guthrie finds five key principles in this passage: (1) a healthy focus on Jesus encourages one to be faithful, (2) this faithfulness is volitional, which means having a will and choosing, both intellectually and emotionally; (3) the twin failings of sinfulness and unbelief hinder faithfulness; (4) the faithful persevere in their commitment and this aids in holding fast to their confidence, and (5) faithfulness is communal, meaning it is not limited to only individuals.[32] The “rest” being spoken of was in danger of being missed like the first generation of wanderers in the wilderness had done. The key in not losing “rest” was combing faith with the obedience to God’s word. Chapter four then promises rest to those who are faithful, but the author is fearful some of his audience would not enter God’s rest. Percer further illustrates, “The theme of entering rest and disobedience and the exposure to God’s Word has an overarching theme to entering God’s rest.”[33] Israel’s failure to trust God at Kadesh Barnea (Numbers 10:11-14:45) was tragic because the promise and blessing of rest was a provision of God. William Lane demonstrates how the, “Allusions to Numbers 14 are significant because they indicate that unbelief is not a lack of faith or trust. It is the refusal to believe God. It leads inevitably to a turning away from God in a deliberate act of rejection. The play on words ἀπιστίας ἐν τῷ ἀποστῆναι, ‘unbelief in turning away,’ reinforces the fact that falling away and unbelief reflect the same disposition.”[34] While the land of Canaan was an Old Testament example, for Christians today, it represents a relationship into God’s very own presence and an unshakable kingdom. Percer explains, “This rest is both now and for the future and in the present it is meant to take time to worship, reflect, and hear God’s Word.”[35] One’s confidence comes in what Christ has accomplished and only in Him will anyone find both atoning and peaceful rest. Guthrie sums up “rest” best when he states, “True rest is found only in a relationship with the person of God. The rest is His rest, for His people, found by obeying His Word.”[36] When trying to describe “rest” to someone, a powerful representation can be found in Jesus’ words in Matthew 11:28-30: “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light.” Ultimately, when someone chooses disobedience and defection, Guthrie illustrates, “They [will] wander the desert and lack the promised rest, [since] the problem is a dysfunctional relationship to God and all who are not in right relationship with God need the promised rest found only in Christ’s Day of Atonement sacrifice.”[37] Jesus is the perfect example for Christians to follow and He is the very means of one’s faithfulness and accordingly, He will judge each individual as He calls His followers to the promised rest.[38]

CONCLUSION

As N. T. Wright states, “Hebrews wants its readers to think of themselves as in some ways like that generation, walking through the wilderness on the way to God’s promised future; and they must not make the mistakes that the Israelites did.”[39] Perseverance and faithfulness are main points of this warning passage, as the author of Hebrews warns his audience about the danger of developing an evil heart of unbelief like the generation in the wilderness had done and the grave consequences that would result if they did not change their ways. Faith and hope are what allow one to endure the trials and circumstances of life, but they also ensure one day entering into God’s unshakable rest. As the eternal High Priest, Jesus is seated at the right hand of God interceding and mediating on behalf of all Christians. Jesus suffered and was tempted in everyway possible, so believers today may find solace in knowing Christ knows exactly what everyone is going through and yet He remained faithful to the Father and endured it all without sinning. This knowledge coupled with the fact that the same power that raised Jesus from the dead dwells inside every believer should provide all the strength and assurance to live a life holy and righteous and one that brings honor and glory to God. Trust in God must always lead to active faith and obedience. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bruce, F. F. The New International Commentary on the New Testament – The Epistle to the Hebrews. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1990.

Cockerill, Gareth L. The New International Commentary on the New Testament – The Epistle to the Hebrews. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2012.

Cockerill, Gareth L., Buist M. Fanning, Randall C. Gleason, Grant R. Osborne, and George Guthrie. Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews. Edited by Herbert W. Bateman IV. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007.

Easter, Matthew C. “Faith in the God Who Resurrects: The Theocentric Faith of Hebrews.” New Testament Studies 63, no. 1 (January 2017): 76-91. Doi: 10.1017/S0028688516000291. (accessed August 18, 2017).

Enns, Peter E. “Creation and Re-Creation: Psalm 95 and its Interpretation in Hebrews 3:1-4:13.” Westminster Theological Journal 55 (1993): 255-280. https://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/ted_hildebrandt/otesources/19-psalms/text/articles/enns-creationps95-heb4-wtj.pdf (accessed August 18, 2017).

Guthrie, George H. Hebrews: The NIV Application Commentary, From Biblical Text… to Contemporary Life. Edited by Terry Muck. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1998.

Hughes, Robert B. and J. Carl Laney. Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1990.

Lane, William L. Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 47A: Hebrews 1-8. “The High Priestly Character of the Son (3:1-5:10) – B. The Second Warning: The Peril of Refusing to Believe God’s Word.” Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1991.

Morris, Leon. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary – Volume 12: Hebrews through Revelation. ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1981.

Oberholtzer, Thomas Kem. “The Warning Passages in Hebrews: The Kingdom Rest in Hebrews 3:1-4:13.” Bibliotheca Sacra 145, no. 578 (April 1988): 185-196. ATLASerials, Religion Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed August 18, 2017).

Oropeza, B. J. “The Warning Passages in Hebrews: Revised Theologies and New Methods of Interpretation.” Currents in Biblical Research 10, no. 1 (November 2011): 81-100. Doi: 10.1177/1476993X10391138. (accessed August 18, 2017).

Percer, Leo. “Introduction to Hebrews – Background and Structure.” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, NBST 621, Course Content, Week One Video Presentation, 14:37, (accessed August 18, 2017).

_________. “Jesus: The Example of the Faithful Son.” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, NBST 621, Course Content, Week Three Video Presentation, 11:16, (accessed August 18, 2017).

_________. “The Promise of Rest to the Faithful.” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, NBST 621, Course Content, Week Three Video Presentation, 13:56, (accessed August 18, 2017).

Richards, Lawrence O. The Teacher’s Commentary. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1987.

Walvoord, John and Roy Zuck, ed., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures by Dallas Seminary Faculty. Colorado Springs, CO: Cook Communications, 1985.

Whitlark, Jason. “The Warning Against Idolatry: An Intertextual Examination of Septuagintal Warnings in Hebrews.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 34, no. 4 (2012): 382-401. Doi: 10.1177/0142064X12443032. (accessed August 18, 2017).

Wright, N. T. Hebrews for Everyone. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Know Press, 2004.

[1] Leo Percer, “Introduction to Hebrews – Background and Structure,” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, NBST 621, Course Content, Week One Video Presentation, 14:37, (accessed August 18, 2017).

[2] George H. Guthrie, Hebrews: The NIV Application Commentary, From Biblical Text… to Contemporary Life, ed. by Terry Muck, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1998), 24-26.

[3] F. F. Bruce, The New International Commentary on the New Testament – The Epistle to the Hebrews (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1990), 12.

[4] Gareth Lee Cockerill, The New International Commentary on the New Testament – The Epistle to the Hebrews (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2012), 2.

[5] Guthrie, Hebrews, 27.

[6] Ibid., 22.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Jason Whitlark, “The Warning Against Idolatry: An Intertextual Examination of Septuagintal Warnings in Hebrews,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 34, no. 4 (2012): 382. Doi: 10.1177/0142064X12443032. (accessed August 18, 2017).

[9] Bruce, TNICNT– The Epistle to the Hebrews, 97.

[10] Peter E. Enns, “Creation and Re-Creation: Psalm 95 and its Interpretation in Hebrews 3:1-4:13,” Westminster Theological Journal 55 (1993): 271.

[11] N. T. Wright. Hebrews for Everyone (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Know Press, 2004), 29.

[12] Leo Percer, “Jesus: The Example of the Faithful Son,” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, NBST 621, Course Content, Week Three Video Presentation, 11:16, (accessed August 18, 2017).

[13] Ibid.

[14] Buist M. Fanning, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, ed. Herbert W. Bateman IV (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007), 195.

[15] Bruce, TNICNT– The Epistle to the Hebrews, 91.

[16] Guthrie, Hebrews, 128.

[17] Bruce, TNICNT– The Epistle to the Hebrews, 92.

[18] B. J. Oropeza, “The Warning Passages in Hebrews: Revised Theologies and New Methods of Interpretation,” Currents in Biblical Research 10, no. 1 (November 2011): 81. Doi: 10.1177/1476993X10391138. (accessed August 18, 2017).

[19] Ibid., 82.

[20] Wright, Hebrews for Everyone, 36.

[21] Leon Morris, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary – Volume 12: Hebrews through Revelation, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1981), 36.

[22] Percer, “Introduction to Hebrews – Background and Structure.”

[23] Wright, Hebrews for Everyone, 31.

[24] Thomas Kem Oberholtzer, “The Warning Passages in Hebrews: The Kingdom Rest in Hebrews 3:1-4:13,” Bibliotheca Sacra 145, no. 578 (April 1988): 188-189. ATLASerials, Religion Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed August 18, 2017).

[25] Bruce, TNICNT– The Epistle to the Hebrews, 99.

[26] Oberholtzer, “The Warning Passages in Hebrews,” 196.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Percer, “Jesus: The Example of the Faithful Son.”

[29] Guthrie, Hebrews, 131.

[30] Matthew C. Easter, “Faith in the God Who Resurrects: The Theocentric Faith of Hebrews,” New Testament Studies 63, no. 1 (January 2017): 76-91. doi: 10.1017/S0028688516000291. (accessed August 18, 2017).

[31] Bruce, TNICNT – The Epistle to the Hebrews, 5.

[32] Guthrie, Hebrews, 161-167.

[33] Leo Percer, “The Promise of Rest to the Faithful,” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, NBST 621, Course Content, Week Three Video Presentation, 13:56, (accessed August 18, 2017).

[34] William L. Lane, Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 47A: Hebrews 1-8, “The High Priestly Character of the Son (3:1-5:10) – B. The Second Warning: The Peril of Refusing to Believe God’s Word,” (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1991,) 86.

[35] Percer, “The Promise of Rest to the Faithful.”

[36] Guthrie, Hebrews, 166.

[37] Guthrie, Hebrews, 167.

[38] Robert B. Hughes and J. Carl Laney, Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1990), 666.

[39] Wright, Hebrews for Everyone, 28.

 

The Gospel According to Isaiah 53 Book Analysis & Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology

Mitch Glaser and Darrell Bock team up with nine other top scholars in their respective fields of study to examine and present a variety of ways in which Isaiah 53 has been and should be interpreted by both Jews and Christians, and also how to appropriately use this essential chapter of Scripture today in preaching, teaching, and evangelistic occasions. Glaser, President of Chosen People Ministries asserts, “The Bible is the inspired Word of God and Jesus is the promised Messiah of Israel – and the simple message of His death and resurrection has the power to transform the lives of both Jews and Gentiles.”[1] Bock, Executive Director of Cultural Engagement and Senior Research Professor of New Testament Studies at Dallas Theological Seminary[2] also contributes considerable insight on Isaiah 53’s use in Luke’s accounts, to show that, “His death was a ransom for sin, [which] connects Jesus to all of us, potentially and actually.”[3] This book analysis is written in light of the entire text, but will focus primarily on chapters one, three, and four through six, which reveal how Isaiah 53 was essentially, “God pulling aside the curtain of time to let the people of Isaiah’s day look ahead to the suffering of the future Messiah and the resulting forgiveness made available to all people.”[4] The main objective of this analysis will detail the relationship between the Messiah and the Servant presented in Isaiah, and in the New Testament, and will also examine several key passages and their interpretive issues.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MESSIAH AND THE SERVANT IN ISAIAH

Two of the key questions Michael Wilkins poses are: “Did Jesus see Himself as the prophesied servant in Isaiah 53 and how did the early church understand Jesus’ life and ministry in the light of Isaiah’s prophecy?”[5] After the baptism and the temptation of Jesus in the wilderness, He returns to His hometown of Nazareth and goes to the synagogue on the Sabbath, where He reads Isaiah 61 from the scroll and declares, “Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing” (Luke 4:20b). This act would be the beginning of Jesus’ public ministry, yet even in His hometown, the people drove Him out and went as far as trying to throw Him down a cliff. It should be no surprise that some people today struggle with identifying Jesus as the Messiah when even His own disciples did not understand when He spoke of His own death and resurrection. Part of the confusion is rooted in the enigma of the corporate and individual servant spoken of throughout the book of Isaiah. Wilkins explains, “The people of Israel understood that God was using them as a people to fulfill the prophecies of Isaiah, yet the prophecies of the servant vary in that some allude to a corporate entity, and some allude to a single individual.”[6] In Isaiah 41:8, Israel as a nation is clearly in mind as being the servant of the Lord because God had given them a place of honor and esteem so that they might be a witness to the other nations of God’s blessing. Gary Yates explains, “In the Mosaic Law, God told them that they would become a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. In other words, they would mediate God’s presence and blessings to all the nations on the earth.”[7] However, the problem was that Israel, as a nation, had failed in its mission and as a result had become a blind and deaf servant (Isaiah 42:18-25). As John Oswalt demonstrates, “Verse 7 said that the Servant of the Lord would lead the blind and imprisoned out into the light, [so Oswalt rightly asserts] that this Servant could not be the nation Israel, even though in other places (Isaiah 41:8; 43:10) the nation is clearly identified as the servant of the Lord.”[8] Instead of leading the people of other nations to Yahweh, the people of Israel often did the exact opposite by worshipping the false gods of other nations. In the midst of this apostasy, Isaiah promises that God would provide a solution to the problem, which was the raising up of an individual Servant who would restore the national/corporate servant. Another example of this individual and corporate servant paradigm is found in Isaiah 49:3, which first depicts Israel as the servant, but then in verse six, the Servant is an individual who has a ministry to Israel. It is this individual Servant who is going to be the one who restores the national servant.

KEY PASSAGES AND INTERPRETIVE ISSUES

As Christians, it can be very easy to read chapters of Scripture like Isaiah 53 and immediately identify the Servant of the Lord or the Suffering Servant as being Jesus Christ. However, this is problematic, especially when looking at the Song of the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 52:13-53:12. In this passage, the Servant is rejected and dies for the sins of others and Yates reveals how this action highlights four differences: (1) Israel suffers for its own sin, while the individual Servant suffers for the sins of others; (2) Israel fails in its mission, as a blind and deaf servant, but the individual Servant fulfills His mission faithfully and in spite of intense persecution; (3) Israel suffers at the hands of the surrounding nations, yet the individual Servant suffers at the hands of His own people; and (4) Israel complains in its own suffering that God has abandoned and rejected her, but the individual Servant trusts God completely and suffers without ever complaining.[9]

One of the ongoing debates Richard Averbeck discusses is the suffering, sacrifice, and atonement presented in Isaiah 53:10. The main question contested is if Isaiah had in mind a vicarious, sacrificial substitution to make atonement for sin, but what Averbeck says with certainty is, “The main historical issue being dealt with was the restoration of Israel to its land and to its function as God’s servant.”[10] This conclusion fits both a prophetic perspective as well as a real-time context, such as the Babylonian captivity. Averbeck also provides clear insight on the context of ‏אָשָׁם or ʾāšām to mean guilt offering and concludes, “From Isaiah’s point of view, the suffering of the Isaiah 53 Servant was as essential to the restoration of the exiled people back to their Promised Land as the guilt offering was for the restoration of the skin-diseased person to the community.”[11] The shift in third person to first person references is another valuable contribution Averbeck highlights, in addition to the prophet who wrote this adding himself among the “we, us, our” audience. This further advances the argument that Isaiah was not the suffering servant, since as Averbeck shows, “The writer is a recipient of the Suffering Servant’s ministry and is not to be identified as the Servant Himself.”[12]

PORTRAYAL OF SERVANT IN ISAIAH AND IN THE NEW TESTAMENT

Upon addressing both the corporate and individual identity of the servant, Wilkins addresses the paradox of “How could this passive, sheep-like individual be the mighty arm of the Lord (cf. Isa. 51:9; 53:1) that Israel understood herself to be as God’s servant in His plan of salvation and how could He be exalted and yet despised?”[13] Matthew’s perspective on Jesus as the servant in Isaiah 53 is quite profound, and Wilkins shows how he divides Jesus’ ministry into five clear stages: Jesus’s Infancy – Divine Nazarene, Jesus’ Baptism – Righteous Son, Jesus’ Earthly Ministry – Healing Servant, Jesus’ Passion Ministry – Blood Ransom, and Jesus’ Burial and Resurrection – Transforming Master.[14] Ultimately, the Son of Man came to serve and not be served, and to give His life as a ransom for many” (Matthew 20:28). In this passage, R. T. France explains, “Jesus’ belief that He ‘must’ suffer and die may be attributed most plausibly to that OT background, and here the language brings us significantly closer to Isaiah 53. It would be hard to compose a better brief summary of the central thrust of Isaiah 53 than ‘to give His life as a ransom in place of many.’”[15] Mark 10:45 is identical to Matthew’s account and William Lane shows how, “The specific thought underlying the reference to the ransom is expressed in Isaiah 53:10 which speaks of ‘making His life an offering for sin. Jesus, as the Messianic Servant, offers Himself as a guilt offering (Lev. 5:14-6:7; 7:1-7; Num. 5:5-8) in compensation for the sins of the people.”[16] These passages back up Wilkins’ findings that, “The early church applied to Jesus the prophecies of Isaiah 53, in an attempt to understand His crucifixion and death [and] Jesus’ own understanding of His mission and death in the light of Isaiah 53 was clearly the root of the early church’s understanding.”[17]

While the New Testament quotes or alludes to Isaiah 53 more than a dozen times, Darrell Bock offers considerable insight into one of the most revealing occurrences in Acts 8:26-40 as Philip is directed by the Spirit to an Ethiopian eunuch who was traveling on the Jerusalem-to-Gaza road. During this encounter, the eunuch asks Philip, “About whom, I ask you, does the prophet say this, about Himself or about someone else?” Here, F. F. Bruce illuminates that, “During a time when not one line of any New Testament document had been written, what Scripture could any evangelist have used more fittingly as a starting point for presenting the story of Jesus to one who did not know Him? It was Jesus, and no other, who offered up His life as a sacrifice for sin, and justified many by bearing their iniquities, as the obedient Servant.”[18] As Bock demonstrates by the eunuch’s actions, there is much that can be learned and gained, but most importantly is how, “[Jesus was] unjustly humiliated and He took our place so we can experience cleansing and new life with God, something God showed that Jesus had done by raising Jesus from the dead and taking Jesus to His side in heaven.”[19] This passage of Scripture beautifully contrasts Jesus’s silent humiliation and unjust crucifixion with God’s vindication and resurrection of the suffering Servant, which Bock concludes, “Was actually part of God’s divine work to pay a price, even for those who had rejected Him.”[20]

Craig Evans then offers substantial insight on the theologies of Peter, Paul, John, and the author of Hebrews. Between these epistles, Isaiah 52:13-53:12 is quoted or alluded to nearly twenty times. Evan’s section on Hebrews seemed the most insightful, considering this sermon/homily was most likely written to a group of Jewish Christians who were considering going back to Judaism. In Hebrews 9:26, Evans states, “The death of Jesus constitutes a sacrifice on behalf of humanity that need never be repeated, and as heavenly High Priest, who mediates the new covenant, the benefits that Jesus bestows on humanity only continues to grow.”[21] Interacting with the theologies of Peter, Paul, Hebrews, and John demonstrates the suffering and death further proves Jesus was the Messiah, and that all the prophecies are fulfilled in Scripture. Evans closes this section by illuminating, “What is especially intriguing is that the famous Suffering Servant hymn apparently lay at the heart of an evangelism and apologetic primarily intended for the synagogue.”[22] Ironically, it would be the synagogues that would be visited by Jesus, the disciples, and the apostle Paul to spread the life-saving gospel message.

CONCLUSION

The message of Isaiah 53, when illuminated by the rest of Scripture, reveals that the promised Messiah, the suffering Servant is one and the same individual. Only Jesus Christ fulfills both of these roles as He rules and reigns forever, as a result of His perfect faith and trust in God and His suffering and ultimate sacrifice, which saved His people and became a ransom for many. The idea of the Servant of the Lord is indeed a complex idea because in Isaiah this entity is depicted as both the nation of Israel and as an individual Servant who suffers and dies to restore God’s people. After Israel’s failure to be a light to the other nations, they became a blind and deaf servant, but the individual suffering Servant, the Messiah, arose out of this corporate failure and was empowered by God and attains great victories in the power of the Lord and has made a way, as Bock describes, to, “Clear the way to remove guilt and defilement and provide the gift of life through the Spirit of God by removing the obstacle that sin generates between people and God. [However,] the application of that removal requires that we accept the gift of God’s work through Jesus, asking that His forgiveness be applied specifically to us.”[23]

The Gospel According to Isaiah 53 is well suited for anyone interested in discovering and viewing the Suffering Servant’s identity and role through the individual lenses of the Old and New Testament and then through the combined lens of all Scripture. This scholarly work should stand the test of time and have great impact amongst both the Jewish and Christian community.

The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology. By Richard E. Averbeck, Michael L. Brown, Walter C. Kaiser Jr., Michael J. Wilkins, Darrell L. Bock, Craig A. Evans, David L. Allen, Robert B. Chisholm Jr., John S. Feinberg, Mitch Glaser, and Donald R. Sunukjian. Edited by Darrell L. Bock and Mitch Glaser. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012, 334 pp. $27.99 (Paperback).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bock, Darrell L. and Mitch Glaser, eds. The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012.

Bruce, F. F. The Book of Acts. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1988.

Dallas Theological Seminary Website. “Darrell L. Bock.” http://www.dts.edu/about/faculty/dbock/ (accessed August 11, 2017).

France, R. T. The Gospel of Matthew. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2007.

Glaser, Mitch. “President’s Introduction.” Chosen People Website. https://www.chosenpeople.com/site/our-mission/presidents-introduction/ (accessed, August 11, 2017).

Grogan, Geoffrey W. Volume 6: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986.

Lane, William L. The Gospel of Mark. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1974.

LaSor, William S., David A. Hubbard, and Frederic W. Bush. Old Testament Survey. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1996.

Life Application Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1988.

Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah Chapters 1-39. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976.

________. The Book of Isaiah Chapters 40-66. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976.

Webb, Barry G. The Message of Isaiah. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996.

Yates, Gary. “The Servant of the Lord in Isaiah.” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, OBST 661, Course Content, Week Seven Video Presentation, 12:26, (accessed August 14, 2017).

[1] Mitch Glaser, “President’s Introduction,” Chosen People Website, https://www.chosenpeople.com/site/our-mission/presidents-introduction/ (accessed, August 11, 2017).

[2] Dallas Theological Seminary Website, “Darrell L. Bock,” http://www.dts.edu/about/faculty/dbock/ (accessed August 11, 2017).

[3] Darrell L. Bock, “Isaiah 53 in Acts 8,” in The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology, eds. Darrell L. Bock and Mitch Glaser (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012), 143.

[4] Life Application Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1988), 1176.

[5] Michael J. Wilkins, “Isaiah 53 and the Message of Salvation in the Gospels,” in The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology, eds. Darrell L. Bock and Mitch Glaser (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012), 109.

[6] Ibid., 110.

[7] Gary Yates, “The Servant of the Lord in Isaiah,” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, OBST 661, Course Content, Week Seven Video Presentation, 12:26, (accessed August 14, 2017).

[8] John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah Chapters 40-66, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976), 130.

[9] Yates, “The Servant of the Lord in Isaiah.”

[10] Richard E. Averbeck, “Christian Interpretations of Isaiah 53,” in The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology, eds. Darrell L. Bock and Mitch Glaser (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012), 53.

[11] Ibid., 59.

[12] Averbeck, “Christian Interpretations of Isaiah 53,” 60.

[13] Wilkins, “Isaiah 53 and the Message of Salvation in the Gospels,” 111.

[14] Ibid., 115.

[15] R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2007), 761.

[16] William L. Lane, The Gospel of Mark, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1974), 383.

[17] Wilkins, “Isaiah 53 and the Message of Salvation in the Gospels,” 131.

[18] F. F. Bruce, The Book of Acts, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1988), 176.

[19] Bock, “Isaiah 53 in Acts 8,” 144.

[20] Bock, “Isaiah 53 in Acts 8,” 143.

[21] Craig A. Evans, “Isaiah 53 in the Letters of Peter, Paul, Hebrews, and John,” in The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology, eds. Darrell L. Bock and Mitch Glaser (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2012), 162.

[22] Ibid., 170.

[23] Bock, “Isaiah 53 in Acts 8,” 143.

Hezekiah’s Response to Death & Threat of Assyrian Siege Warfare: Isaiah 38:1-22

God is faithful

It is amazing the vast difference that exists between two people, when one of them puts their hope, faith, and trust in God and the other one wants nothing to do with the Lord. This was the scenario played out in the book of Isaiah as King Ahaz did not have a relationship with the Lord, therefore, he did not trust Him. As a result, when Israel formed an alliance with Syria to attack Judah, king Ahaz decided to place his trust in man (the king of Assyria) and military alliances and while it may have spared Judah from the immediate threat of attack, it would ultimately invite disaster upon Judah in the future. However, his son, king Hezekiah did have a good relationship with the Lord and he was used mightily by God to bring protection and blessing on the kingdom of Judah. In Isaiah 38:1-22, we find ourselves in the middle of Hezekiah’s narrative. Prior to this chapter, the nation of Assyria who had made an alliance with king Ahaz was now attacking Judah, the very nation they vowed to protect, so it seems the sins of the father were attempting to visit the son, but king Hezekiah did not do what his father would have done. Instead of turning to man or alliances in the presence of danger, he turned to God in faith and prayer, despite the immense fear he and his people were experiencing, especially at the prospect of siege warfare, which could last for months or even years. In a letter, the Assyrians demanded the complete and unconditional surrender of the city of Jerusalem, so Hezekiah takes this letter before God and asks the Lord to deliver them. As a result of this faith and prayer, the Lord instructs Isaiah to go before Hezekiah to deliver a “fear not” message and that God would give Hezekiah a sign that his message was received loud and clear and that the Lord had the situation under control. That evening, the angel of the Lord swept throughout Sennacherib’s encampment killing 180,000 soldiers without a single arrow being fired into the city of Jerusalem.

Understanding how and why the narratives of king Ahaz and king Hezekiah compare and contrast each other is very important to understanding the overall message of the book of Isaiah. On the heels of Judah’s miraculous deliverance in chapter 37, chapter 38 presents Hezekiah with a fatal illness and the Lord instructs Isaiah in v. 1 to go and tell Hezekiah he better get his affairs in order “for you shall die, you shall not recover, thus says the LORD” (Isaiah 38:1).

***I do not know about you, but I would be thinking, “Well dang! I thought we really had something good going here God. Am I missing something or did I do something wrong?”***

EXPLANATION OF PASSAGE

After king Hezekiah receives this word from the Lord, his reaction reveals his true character. See, Hezekiah was an honorable man, he was determined to do good in the eyes of the Lord, he followed, trusted, and obeyed the Lord and because of that, the Lord blessed and honored Him in return. In our trials or dire circumstances, character is developed and God uses these tests to teach us patience, endurance, and faith. In fact, trials not only teach character; they also reveal it. With Ahaz and Hezekiah, their decisions and outcomes either revealed a close relationship with God, or a lack of one. The key difference between Ahaz and Hezekiah was when disaster struck, Ahaz put his faith in man and brought judgment and destruction on Judah, but Hezekiah put his trust in God and brought salvation and deliverance to Judah.

***Question: “How can these two men who were father and son be so different?”***

***Answer: “Their response to the crisis was rooted in the type of person they were before it.***

It is impossible to trust God when you do not have a relationship with Him, but Hezekiah did, so lets look at how he would respond to this sudden diagnosis of impending death. The first thing he does is pray and in this prayer he reminds the Lord of three things: his faithful walk, his loyal heart, and his righteous behavior. Being the son of Ahaz, who was one of the wickedest kings, going as far to even offer his own son, as a sacrifice to false gods seems to demonstrate just how far Hezekiah had fallen from the proverbial tree. Our relationship with God provides us with a stable foundation to believe in His promises, especially during difficult seasons. Barry Webb explains, “This serious illness Hezekiah faced was the crisis behind the crisis, which brings each of us face to face with our own mortality, and can put our trust in God on a razor’s edge.”[1] After praying, Hezekiah wept bitterly, submitting his life to God’s will and the Lord answers his prayer immediately, sending Isaiah with a second message that promised two things: God would heal him and add fifteen years to his life and God would deliver him and Jerusalem from Assyria, for God’s honor and David’s sake. John Oswalt believes Hezekiah’s recovery, “Was not merely because God has changed his mind but because of his willingness to keep faith with those to whom he has committed himself in the past. There is no limit to the effect of a faithful life. Although the sins of a person may affect future generations, the results of a person’s faithfulness will reach to a thousand generations.”[2] It is through our prayers, God says He will deliver us and since God never changes, much can be learned about His nature from Scripture.

It is interesting to note here that the Lord would offer a sign, in much the same way He did for king Ahaz, but Ahaz would refuse the Lord’s sign when one was offered because he did not have a relationship with God. However, to ensure Hezekiah of his healing, the Lord would move the shadow back ten degrees on the sundial (2 Kings 20:8). While there is some debate as to whether Hezekiah’s healing predates the attack of Assyria in chapter 37, what is assured is no king of Assyria would ever capture Jerusalem.

APPLICATION AND THEOLOGICAL ISSUES

Just as Hezekiah and Ahaz both received “fear not” messages, the same promises found in God’s Word applies to the church today. Later in Isaiah, (Isaiah 41:10, 14; 43:1-7) the prophet speaks of a future exile coming, but even in spite of what that would mean, God promised to watch over His children, to rescue them, and to bring them home. As followers of Christ, we need to know how we are going to respond to the “fear not” circumstances and trials of our life. Are we going to put our hope, faith, and trust in man, or will we be like Hezekiah and trust in God’s promises.

***The driving question: “How do we respond when God says ‘Fear not?’”

***Our answer will reveal if the Lord is truly our all-in-all and ever present help in time of need.

John 16:33: “Fear not, for I have overcome the world.”

When Hezekiah was on his deathbed, he had become depressed because it felt as though his very life was being robbed from him. Upon this realization, he began to contemplate never again being able to worship the Lord or enjoy fellowship with others. In vv. 10-13, he says he feels like a tent being taken down or a piece of cloth being cut away. He was broken in both body and spirit and in constant pain from what some scholars believe to be an outbreak of the bubonic plague. Despite his condition, he cried out to the Lord in speech and tears and he made a renewed commitment to the Lord (Matthew 23:12; Isaiah 57:15). This renewed commitment pledged to walk humbly before the Lord, to declare His healing power, to acknowledge the love of the Lord, to praise the Lord, to hope in God’s faithfulness, and to worship faithfully in the house of the Lord. These pledges and traits are what God calls each of His children to do. Our humility compels God to give life to His children, our praise and thanksgiving in the midst of trials and circumstances allows us to grow in our suffering, and our strong witness about the Lord, even in the face of death proclaims God’s faithfulness and salvation. One of the best sayings I have heard is, “Complain and you will remain, but praise and you will be raised.” As Hezekiah came to realize the miraculous work God had done in his life, he knew words could never convey his sincerest gratitude for his deliverance and Geoffrey Grogan beautifully explains, “In God, word and deed always perfectly correspond. The king has learned humility from this experience, for through it he has come to recognize that another controls the course of his life and the day of his death.”[3]
As a result of his healing, Hezekiah is moved to worship the Lord in the temple. If this account truly happened before the attack by the Assyrians, it is easy to see how much bolder he was in his prayer and petition before the Lord with the letter from the enemy demanding the complete surrender of Jerusalem. This story is reminiscent of 2 Kings 13:18 where Elisha instructs king Joash to hit the ground with his arrows, but he stops after only hitting the ground three times. Our finite understanding has a tendency to limit our thoughts and actions and this essentially puts God in a box.

***The question we must each ask ourselves is if we are going to allow our circumstances to define us, as we tell God how big our problems are, or are we going to begin telling our problems just how big our God is and that our ultimate prayer is that His will be done?***

ILLUSTRATIONS

Five years ago, I was involved in a very serious accident that nearly took my life. I was on a long-distance cycle ride and a pickup truck hit me from behind going 65mph. I broke five discs in my neck and four in my lower back. The impact separated my shoulder and rendered me unconscious. That moment in time would shape the rest of my life and it is no coincidence that was the very day I became a pastor. It was almost as if the devil was trying to take me out before I could begin my ministry. It would take over five reconstructive surgeries to put me back together again, but throughout the journey to where I find myself today, I remained faithful to the Lord, I witnessed to countless doctors, nurses, techs, and anyone else who would listen to the miracle God was doing in my life. Sure, I had to deal with constant intense pain and depression tried to overtake me as my plans to enter the military were robbed, but God had something better in store for me because I stayed humble and submitted my life to His complete will. In less than a month, I will graduate with my M.Div. and will be going into the Army as a chaplain, which is beyond what I could ever dream of. Through my suffering, God used me to touch countless lives and through my restoration, He has provided hope for many people walking a similar road to recovery. Last year, I ran over 1,300 miles, which is something the doctors said I would never be able to do again. God’s omnipotence and omniscience allows Him to heal us and know everything we need and are feeling. In some cases, God will choose to miraculously heal us, while in cases like mine; He gave me the strength to endure all the medical procedures. In the end, He receives the glory either way and even my suffering has brought me closer to the Lord and a day never goes by that I do not praise Him for the work He has done and is continuing to do in my life.

CONCLUSION

The power of prayer has no limits because there is no limit to God’s power. When we are at our weakest, the Lord is at His strongest and He is close to the brokenhearted. He calls each of us to cast our cares on Him for His yoke is easy and His burden is light. In all of our petitions, we must remain humble, faithful, and maintain an attitude of praise. God will always provide exactly what we need when we need it. In the bad, we must learn to praise and in the good, we must not forget to praise. Hezekiah trusted in the Lord and because of his faithful walk, his loyal heart, and his righteous and humble behavior, God was compelled to act. In our deepest depths of despair, Webb explains, “Such lessons are priceless, but often it is only by looking back, as Hezekiah does in the end of this chapter, that we can see how suffering has been the means God has used to teach them to us (Hebrews 12:11; Romans 8:28).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah Chapters 1-39. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976.

Grogan, Geoffrey W. Volume 6: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986.

Webb, Barry G. The Message of Isaiah, On Eagles Wings. The Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996.

Yates, Gary. “Trusting Man vs. Trusting God: Ahaz and Hezekiah.” Filmed [2013], Liberty University Website, OBST 661, Course Content, Week Five Video Presentation, 10:44, (accessed August 4, 2017).

[1] Barry G. Webb, The Message of Isaiah (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996), 154.

[2] John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah Chapters 1-39, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976), 677.

[3] Geoffrey W. Grogan, Volume 6: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986), 237.

 

Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews: Book Review

Four Views of Warning Passages in Hebrews

INTRODUCTION

Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews is the culmination of a collection of papers presented to the Hebrews Study Group during the fifty-sixth annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society during November 17-19, 2004. While the denominational orientations of the members are diverse, the group holds to two doctrinal beliefs: “The Bible alone, and the Bible in its entirety, is the Word of God written and is therefore inerrant in the autographs, and God is a Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, each an uncreated person, one in essence, equal in power and glory.”[1] Each of the four New Testament scholars present and defend their exegetical presentations and then critique the view of their fellow contributors. Herbert Bateman asserts, “The purpose of Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews seeks to expose existing tensions and provide various ways in which four scholars with differing theological grids interpret them in the literary and historical context of Hebrews…[And] forces us to address the issue of assurance and the doctrine of eternal security.”[2] The purpose of this book critique will first be to evaluate the main arguments presented, by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses found in each view/approach. Second, one view will recognized as the best explanation, with details as to why it is the best choice. Lastly, an assessment of the book’s overall contribution to the field of study will be presented.

SUMMARY OF CONTENT AND MAIN ARGUMENTS

The book of Hebrews reads much more like an exhortation or sermon/homily, rather than as a typical New Testament letter. It seems the recipients were facing a crisis of faith and were considering going back to Judaism and abandoning their Christian beliefs. This would mean the original recipients were most likely Jewish Roman Christians, who had an extensive knowledge of the Old Testament. The book is also written as a word of encouragement for the recipients to maintain their faith in Christ. God inspired the author to not only encourage, but also to confront the people and warn them of the danger they faced if they remained immature in faith and the judgment that would result if they did not turn back to Christ. By reminding the recipients of the character and nature of Jesus, the writer/speaker encourages them to stand firm in their faith. Bateman believes, “Hebrews 5:11-6:12 is the heart of the author’s concern. Yet together the five warning messages[3] are all emotive exhortations to believers to persevere and believe, rather than distrust and disobey… The wilderness community serves as a reminder that God, in a previous era, punished those who distrusted and disobeyed Him and His messengers.”[4]

Grant Osborne maintains a Classical Arminian view, and immediately explains the six hundred year debate that has been going on, despite the agreement on the meaning of depravity: “For the Calvinist there is no hope until God sovereignly acts and on the basis of His mysterious will elects some to salvation and then overwhelms them with His irresistible grace so that they choose Christ. [However,] for the Arminian, God still acts sovereignly but He sends His Spirit Who convicts every person and overcomes their total depravity so that they make a choice.”[5] The warning passages are a key component of this debate and the audience’s apostasy is one of the few things agreed upon. Osborne asserts, “Faith is a passive surrender to God who saves us, and an opening up of ourselves to God, who works salvation in us. But it is still a free choice. This freedom then passes over into the life of sanctification.” Osborne identifies Hebrews 6 as a hinge point in his argument. The apostasy being addressed to the Roman converts was a real danger, as Osborne maintains when true believers commit an unpardonable sin, there is no possibility of repentance, but only of eternal judgment.[6] Osborne comes to this realization from an understanding of the parallel participles in Hebrew 6:4-6 to mean that true believers have fallen away and he asserts any translation that renders this passage as “if they fall away” is in error.[7]

Buist Fanning’s view on Hebrews is best classified as Classical Reformed and he believes, “It is, strictly speaking, not man but God who perseveres, [which] may be defined as that continuous operation of the Holy Spirit in the believer, by which the work of divine grace that is begun in the heart, is continued and brought to completion. It is because God never forsakes His work that believers continue to stand to the very end.”[8] Fanning identifies the book’s enigmatic character as the one thing almost everyone can agree on. He prefers to use a synthetic approach when approaching the warning passages in Hebrews, while also considering the interpretation of four or five elements or themes that they all have in common.[9] Rooted in this approach, Fanning addresses: the description of those who fall away, the nature of this fall, the consequences of the fall, the desired positive response, and encouragement to the audience about God’s faithfulness.[10] Fanning concludes, “The warnings in Hebrews about falling away and the exhortations to endure are intended to urge the readers to maintain faith in Christ’s high priestly work, not to provoke fear that they may lose their standing with, nor primarily to test the genuineness of their faith.”[11] This essentially communicates those in jeopardy of not possessing salvation never had it in the first place, meaning they were never actually true believers.

Gareth Lee Cockerill maintains a Wesleyan Arminian view and he emphasizes these, “Passages are difficult, not just because they teach that it is possible to fall away from Christ, but also because they appear to teach a falling away from which there is no return, [making these passages] not only a problem for Calvinists, but also for Wesleyans and other Christians.”[12] Cockerill and Osborne both assert it is possible, because of apostasy; to be eternally lost once being saved, but Cockerill emphasizes, “[The] writer of Hebrews is not speaking of salvation from God’s point of view, for only God knows which of the recipients of Hebrews are true believers.”[13] Cockerill also touches on the pastoral implications of the warning passages saying, “The author’s parallel encouragement continues to do for modern Christians what they did for the first hearers of this message, the warnings were not given to generate worry, but to raise concern lest one might fall, the severity of the warnings rests on the greatness of the salvation Christ brought, and they show people are either moving toward God or away from God.”[14] The last point was very insightful because the tendency is to view people as either being in or out of the kingdom of God. As Cockerill concludes, the main emphasis for pastors should not just be whether or not someone has made a decision for Christ; the focus should be on the direction of their lives. This last statement could be misconstrued; really, the focus should be on both.

Randall Gleason holds a Moderate Reformed View and points out the warnings in Hebrews has lacked consensus since the days of the early church.[15] The foundation of Gleason’s interpretation of the warning passages is rooted in Jewish history and context, and he views falling away as much more than simply acting unfaithfully. This unfaithfulness to God parallels the Israelite’s time in the wilderness where an eleven-day journey took forty years because of their attitude and lack of faith in God. By linking the spiritual condition of the intended audience to the sinful nature of the Exodus generation, Gleason presents compelling similarities in the circumstances and the judgment that would follow if the people did not turn back to Christ. Gleason concludes by asserting, “The purpose of Hebrews was to strengthen, encourage, and exhort the members of a persecuted Christian community to hold firmly to their confession of Jesus Christ rather than seek security in the old rituals of Judaism.”[16] This desire to go back to the old ways is associated with the acrostic for Ur, meaning going back to one’s usual routine.

George Guthrie offers a wonderful conclusion to this book and his beliefs closely resemble those of Buist Fanning, so he would be classified as Classical Reformed in his views on Hebrew’s warning passages. Guthrie illuminates, “The manner in which this scholarly dialogue has been conducted represents an irenic, evangelical Christianity that at once aspires to the clarification of truth and the fostering of Christian community – two goals often treated as being unrelated.”[17] Any endeavor in exegesis and hermeneutics should seek to reveal what is contained in Scripture; not what one wants to be there. By seeking to understand what Scripture truly reveals, the interpreter will have the greatest opportunity to communicate the truths of God.

ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUE OF VIEWS

It is amazing how one’s preunderstanding and preconceived notions warp the mind and limit the ability to see God’s truth fully illuminated. Each of the authors are leaders in their respective schools of theology and have contributed much to the advancement of applying God’s Word in the lives of believers today. The way this book is formatted and setup allows it to be read much like a debate with opposing views, by the other three authors, at the conclusion of each chapter. Each author is given ample space ranging from seventy-five to one hundred pages to assert their beliefs and most responses are around twenty pages. The debate seems to revolve around whether the passages are referring to regenerate Christians and the main issue being addressed is if believers can lose their salvation, if they fall away from God’s grace. On multiple occasions, this writer was able to see different views presented in a new light that did not put down another’s viewpoint. When reading or listening to opposing views, the natural reaction is to dismiss what is being said, but that was not the case with this book. Each of these sections were truly enlightening and this is the third book in the last year this writer has read in seminary where differing views were presented and responses were added at the end of each belief, so this seems to be a very successful trend when addressing core doctrinal issues. This format also adds a new level of comprehension and clarification for a wide variety of readers, from new believers, to students, to even scholars in the field. Knowing what one believes is important, but so is being able to interact with the other popular stances on a topic. What really sets this book apart from others is the professionalism each author showed their fellow contributors, even if their beliefs were in conflict. This is an area the church as a whole has been the victim of and as a result, many Christians forget there is only one team: God’s team. Doctrinally, there are surely some hills worth dying on, but many of the trivial translations of a passage have caused such strife and division in the universal church. It was truly refreshing to see these scholars interact with one another and not just point out differences, but point out areas in which there was agreement. Each of the authors were respected scholars in their denominations and while they do not necessarily speak for everyone, in this writer’s opinion, they each presented sound exegetical procedures and conclusions. Because of the complexity of reading Hebrews, it can seem confusing with the contrast of falling away, possibly forever, being juxtaposed with the superiority of Christ as High Priest, so understanding more about the author, the original recipients, and the context are vital to arriving at the most accurate interpretation of the text and what modern day application it presents for believers today.

If one author’s view seemed superior, or at least was better presented, it would be Buist Fanning’s Classical Reformed view. His synthetic approach to the text illustrates how the author includes himself when he is addressing the church and also how Christ is elevated to His High Priestly role. Fanning also does a good job when analyzing the conditional statements and the cause-to-effect relationship between protasis and apodosis. Fanning demonstrates, that not all conditionals express C/E relationships; however, “They all involve a type of contingency with a consequence, but the consequence may be an inference that can be drawn or an equivalence that may be noted, not always an effect produced by the cause denoted in the protasis.”[18] This means enduring faith is the evidence of genuine salvation, which communicates those in jeopardy of not possessing salvation never, had it in the first place, meaning they were never true believers. The priesthood of Jesus is the assurance of salvation and Fanning does a brilliant job illustrating how Christ intercedes for believers and when sinners confess their sins and turn from their wicked ways, God chooses not to remember the sins any longer. Fanning’s approach further seems most valid because it also pictures true genuine believers being able to persevere to the very end because their hope and faith is in Christ.

CONCLUSION

While each of the views of the warning passages in Hebrews had valid points, Fanning’s emphasis of Christ’s power to save over any amount of apostasy is theologically most biblical. To argue otherwise would be to say Christ is unable to forgive certain sins. Fanning raises two interesting questions: “What could cause God to call to mind again what He has pledged never to remember? And what could bring an end to forgiveness or an inheritance that is eternal? To these questions, Fanning asserts, “Why would the author express himself so strongly about God’s absolute faithfulness if human infidelity can short-circuit it, especially since this is the very thing he fears some of his readers may do.”[19] Each of the authors presented considerable insight into how to interpret the warning passages in Hebrews and this book’s contribution will be long lasting in academia and for anyone wanting to properly understand the Epistle to the Hebrews.

 Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews. By Gareth L. Cockerill, Buist M. Fanning, Randall C. Gleason, Grant R. Osborne, and George H. Guthrie. Edited by Herbert W. Bateman IV. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007, 480 pp. $29.99 (Paperback).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cockerill, Gareth L., Buist M. Fanning, Randall C. Gleason, Grant R. Osborne, and George Guthrie. Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews. Edited by Herbert W. Bateman IV. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007.

[1] Herbert W. Bateman IV ed., Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007), 7.

[2] Ibid., 83.

[3] Hebrews 2:1-4; 3:7-4:13; 5:11-6:12; 10:19-39; and 12:14-29

[4] Bateman IV ed., Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, 84-85.

[5] Grant R. Osborne, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, ed. Herbert W. Bateman IV (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007), 86.

[6] Osborne, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, 128.

[7] Ibid., 111-112.

[8] Buist M. Fanning, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, ed. Herbert W. Bateman IV (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007), 172-173.

[9] Ibid., 175.

[10] Ibid., 175-192.

[11] Fanning, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, 218.

[12] Gareth Lee Cockerill, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, ed. Herbert W. Bateman IV (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007), 257.

[13] Ibid., 289.

[14] Ibid., 291-292.

[15] Randall C. Gleason, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, ed. Herbert W. Bateman IV (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007), 336.

[16] Ibid., 367.

[17] George H. Guthrie, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, ed. Herbert W. Bateman IV (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007), 431.

[18] Fanning, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, 210.

[19] Fanning, Four Views on the Warning Passages in Hebrews, 200.

The Explicit Gospel: Book Review

explicitgospel

Matt Chandler is a walking miracle and he is also one of the most gifted communicators whose passion is that we all would know and worship the triune God rightly, that both our minds and hearts would be full of and shaped by Him, and that we all would experience a life-transforming experience upon encountering Christ and the realization of His atoning sacrifice. Currently, Chandler serves as Lead Teaching Pastor of The Village Church in Dallas, Texas and he also is the president of Acts 29, a network of churches planting churches. Here, he brought a fresh vision to the organization, mapping out four specific hopes for its future: (1) plant churches who plant churches, (2) be known for holiness and humility, (3) become radically diverse, and (4) be serious about evangelism and conversion. Chandler has also written four other books: The Mingling of Souls, Recovering Redemption, To Live Is Christ To Die Is Gain, and Creature of the Word, which would make a great companion book to The Explicit Gospel, as it looks how the gospel impacts all the Church is and does. Chandler claims this book first examines the rich, Scripture-based beauty of a Jesus-centered church, and then provides practical steps toward forming a Jesus-centered church.[1] This reading analysis will first assess Chandler’s methodology and approach on the topic of the gospel message and will then evaluate his two vantage point supposition, which he asserts are, “Both necessary in order to begin to glimpse the size and weight of the good news, the eternity-spanning wonderment of the finished work of Christ.”[2]

SUMMARY

The Explicit Gospel reads much like a discourse to remind the reader of the importance of the gospel message, which in today’s world is being watered down and neglected in many churches, leading to people being, as Chandler coins it: “dechurched.” Chandler sets out to show, “It is a call to true Christianity, to know the gospel explicitly, and to unite the church on the amazing grounds of the good news of Jesus. It is inspired by the needs of both the overchurched and the unchurched, and bolstered by the common neglect of the explicit gospel within Christianity.”[3] This indeed is a valiant endeavor; one in which he breaks down into three parts. The first part is called “The Gospel on the Ground,” which “Traces the biblical narrative of God, man, Christ, [and the human] response. [It is here] we will see the power of grace for human transformation, beginning with God’s needless self-sufficiency and culminating in a sinner’s Spirit-abled response to the good news.”[4] Part two then looks at “The Gospel in the Air,” which evaluates how Paul synthesizes human salvation to cosmic restoration in his letter to the Romans. Ultimately, Chandler establishes there is but one gospel, but to fully comprehend it, two vantage points are needed. “The Gospel on the Ground” allows a believer to fully understand the work of the cross and how it not only captures, but also resurrects dead hearts. Then, “The Gospel in the Air” reveals how the atoning work of Christ was part of God’s plan of redemption from the beginning.

Part one begins by looking at the person of God and as Chandler explains, “The deeper we go into God’s glory, the deeper we will find ourselves in the precious work of Christ on the cross.”[5] God has chosen to reveal Himself to His children through two ways: general revelation, which is everything He has created, and special revelation, which is everything recorded in Scripture, through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. In this section, Chandler illuminates God’s transcendent creativity being infinite, just as He is, and while we require things to make more things, God makes something out of nothing. God knows all, He is completely self-sufficient, and He is also completely sovereign over everything. Chandler explains, “From Him and through Him and to Him are all things, [which] means the origin of everything that exists and will exist can be traced back to the hands of God and no further.”[6] Next, Chandler demonstrates humanity’s propensity to make everything about them and he paraphrases Herbert Lockyer, who said, “The Bible is for us, but it is not about us,” meaning the main purpose of Scripture is to reveal the foremost desire of God’s heart is to bring glory to His name. Humans are hardwired for worship, but what he or she chooses to worship is up to the individual. This is a slippery slope and can easily lead to idolatry if God is not kept first.

When looking at man, Chandler reveals two characteristics of God that Paul uses in Romans 11:22. The first is His loving-kindness, which most are familiar with, but the second is His severity. Chandler cautions, “Failing to note the severity of God is attempted theft of all He is due. To discount, disguise, or disbelieve what God does in response to the falling short of His glory is, in itself, falling short of His glory… All sin, then, is deserving of the severity of God, and no one is exempt from this.”[7] The justice of God demands sacrifice because there can be no forgiveness or remission of sins without the shedding of blood. Here, the Lord’s holiness is contrasted with His wrath as Chandler explains, “The chasm between heaven and hell is illustrative of the chasm between God and us. He is glorious; we are not. He is holy; we are not. He is righteous; we are not. And this chasm between God’s total perfection and our total depravity deserves the chasm of stinking, smoldering Gehenna.”[8]

Upon establishing the chasm that exists between God and His children, Chandler demonstrates Christ became the bridge back to restoring communion with the Father. However, this came at a great cost, as crucifixion was the most humiliating and painful way to die and the Romans had perfected this practice as they conquered the known world. This section does a good job pointing out, “The cross of Jesus Christ was not some surprise, not some plan B, but rather the plan known about within the Godhead since the beginning.”[9] Upon the realization that Christ died so that humanity’s sins might be forgiven and that the relationship with the Lord might be restored, a response is then required on the part of humans. Here, even a choice not to choose or accept this offer is still a choice. In Matthew 12:30 Jesus says, “Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.” Faithfulness and obedience are the keys in a proper response and it was truly enlightening and a little frightening to read that eighty-five percent of the Old Testament contains language saying either, “I am destroying you” or “I am going to destroy you.”[10] The response of faith is the only thing that will overcome the fallen and rebellious nature of humanity and the gospel demands a response. One of the primary things that stands in the way of a response of faith is a hardened heart and this is demonstrated throughout Scripture, but as Chandler states, “No heart can ever be too hard for God, [so we must] live through faith, and die through faith. Everything else is garbage. Even works of righteousness, if not done through faith, are works of self-righteousness and therefore filthy rags.”[11]

Part two looks to “The Gospel in the Air” and begins with the creation account or general revelation. Chandler speaks to a variety of scientific theories and emphasizes that “The context of the gospel message is not our benefit or our salvation; the context of the gospel is the supremacy of Christ and the glory of God.”[12] Creation and nature are essential means by which God has chosen to reveal Himself to the world and over the course of history science has been used to prove and disprove the existence of God. Scripture has also come under scrutiny, but Chandler rightly explains, “The aim of the Scriptures is to direct our worship to the one true God of the universe, and the universe itself is designed not to occupy our worship but to stir our heart of hearts to behold its God.”[13]

The fall of man introduced sin into the world and R. C. Sproul defines sin as cosmic treason. While we were created in the image of God and were meant to bring glory to Him, original sin has corrupted and defiled everyone. Adam and Eve’s sin has, as Chandler puts it, “Created a shalom-shaped hole in our hearts, and no matter how much we throw in there, and no matter how long we try filling it, nothing will satisfy but [Jehovah Shalom.]”[14] As each person searches for love, happiness, meaning, and belonging, if they are not looking to find these in God, they will never be fulfilled. Only when reconciliation happens with God and Christ is put first in a believer’s life will the worship of the Creator supersede the worship of creation. When Christ reconciles a believer, Chandler states, “We are no longer enemies of God and we are reconciled to reconcile.”[15] This means being a part of the universal church and allowing the explicit gospel to transform our vision and mission of the church. When this happens, evangelism and discipleship will become priorities and not something that just randomly happens because as Chandler states, “The single most loving act we can do is share the good news of Jesus Christ, that God saves sinners.”[16]

In part three, Chandler provides some wonderful implications and applications, and illustrates, “When we look at the “Gospel from the Air,” through the grand narrative of the Scriptures, we see that the gospel is not just about God’s forgiving us of sins and giving us eternal life, but also about what we are being forgiven for and what eternal life is like.”[17] Some dangers that must be watched for in a “Gospel on the Ground” too long approach are: missing God’s grand mission, having a singular rationalized faith, and having a self-centered gospel. Each of these is a slippery slope and must be guarded against. Some dangers in a “Gospel in the Air” too long approach are: syncretism, a Christless gospel, culture as an idol, and abandoning evangelism. When dealing with moralism and the cross, Chandler talks about the weapons of grace at our disposal. “The first weapon of grace is the blood of Christ (Ephesians 2:13), the second weapon of grace is the word of God (2 Timothy 3:16), and the third weapon of grace is the promise of the new covenant (Hebrews 9:15).”[18] Combined, these weapons allow the believer to fight sin and become the first component of a grace-driven effort.[19]

CRITIQUE

The way Chandler presents the two vantage points was enlightening and the section on the fall of man and the glory of God was also explained brilliantly. By understanding that grace is getting something we do not deserve: the forgiveness of sins and salvation, while mercy is not getting what one deserves: punishment and eternal separation from the Father, the believer can truly begin to appreciate all God has done and not done. Chandler further explains, “The grace of God by definition is unearned. You cannot deserve it… Grace is a free gift given to someone who has not earned it and cannot earn it.”[20] Scripture reveals the wages of sin is death and Chandler’s illustration of Gehenna was profound. While most associate this word with hell, it is also a reference to a ravine on the south side of Jerusalem. Horrible atrocities happened here, making the area, as Chandler puts it, “A stinking, smoldering place of destruction and neglect. The image to hold in our mind is putrid and repulsive [and these extremes represent] the slightest falling short of God’s glory.”[21] This illustration of the effects of sin will be hard to forget!

Pertaining to the satisfactory sacrifice of Christ, Chandler hit the nail on the head when he says, “If we do not understand the bad news, we will never grasp the good news.”[22] The problem he identifies is many people have major problems with the suffering and brutal slaughter of Jesus, despite this act being a major foundation of the Christian faith. Only Jesus could satisfy the debt for all past, present, and future sin. He who knew no sin became sin and sacrificed Himself as the Lamb of God in a Yom Kippur fashion. The Day of Atonement is a perfect example as, “One goat absorbs the wrath of God toward sin and is killed. The other goat, the scapegoat, is vanquished into the wilderness, carrying away the sins of Israel.”[23]

In the section “response to the gospel is not the gospel” Chandler makes a clear distinction between needing to divide the gospel and response, otherwise we compromise both. D. A. Carson writes, “The kingdom of God advances by the power of the Spirit through the ministry of the Word. Not for a moment does that mitigate the importance of good deeds and understanding the social entailments of the gospel, but they are entailments of the gospel. It is the gospel that is preached.”[24] For some, the way Chandler presents this section may make some people uneasy, but as Chandler states, “If we confuse the gospel with response to the gospel, we will drift from what keeps the gospel on the ground, what makes it clear and personal, and the next thing you know, we will be doing a bunch of different things that actually obscure the gospel, not reveal it.”[25] A church that does nothing but events and outreach can be five miles wide, but only one inch deep when it comes to impactful life transformation, so balance is key.

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Rick Warren was so right when he said, “If you read only one book this year, make it this one. It is that important.” One of the first takeaways was found in the person of God. As a result of who God is and everything He has done, worship should be the natural response, since worship is the attributing of ultimate worth to something.[26] However, as Chandler illustrates, “Something has gone wrong with our wiring” and instead of worshipping God and putting Him first above all things, many people whether consciously or subconsciously are worshipping something of than God by what they say and what they do. Ultimately, anything placed before God is an idol and this can be people, places, or things, so it is imperative to do a moral inventory and evaluate where one’s time, talents, and treasures are being used, because that is where their heart will be too.

The fact that we are never not worshipping was a profound declaration and as Chandler demonstrates, “Our thoughts, our desires, and our behaviors are always oriented around something, which means we are always worshipping – ascribing worth to – something [and] if it is not God, we are engaging in idolatry.”[27] There is no way to sugarcoat this principle and it is impossible to turn off the worship switch in our hearts. Timothy Keller explains it perfectly, “When your meaning in life is to fix someone else’s life, we may call it ‘co-dependency’ but it is really idolatry. An idol is whatever you look at and say, in your heart of hearts, ‘If I have that, I will feel my life has meaning, I will know I have value, and I will feel secure.’ There are many ways to describe that kind of relationship to something, but perhaps the best one is worship.”[28]

The final takeaway came as Chandler described how, “A grace-driven effort attacks the roots of our sin, not just the branches. Grace is a heart changer, because the heart is where behavior comes from and wherever our heart is, that is where our actions will follow.”[29] This is an area that must be continually guarded. He uses the example that right under the desire for pleasure is lust, but in reality lust is generally just a symptom of a more central perversion of the heart. The grace-driven effort attacks the cause, not just the symptoms, whereas moralism just tries to pacify the manifested behavior. Fear of God is another motivator behind grace-driven efforts and is something many have unfortunately lost sight of. A grace-driven effort is rooted in pursuing holiness, which allows the believer to not just forsake sin, but as Chandler puts it, “Being dead to it… [because] the person who understands the gospel recognizes that, as a new creation, his [or her] spiritual nature is in opposition to sin now, and he [or she] seeks not just to weaken sin in his [or her] life but to outright destroy it.”[30] These grace-driven weapons and strategies are game changers and will lead to a life embodied by the explicit gospel.

CONCLUSION

Chandler’s approach in writing on this topic was refreshing and demonstrates just how complicated the church has made the gospel message. Whether intentional or not, it is the reality the church faces today. By separating the spheres of the gospel, Chandler has shown how the “Gospel on the Ground” operates at the micro level, while the “Gospel in the Air” operates on the macro level. Then, by examining the glorious truths behind God’s plan for salvation and redemption from multiple vantage points, Chandler adequately lays the foundation with the biblical narrative and the human response and reveals the grand display of God’s glory in reconciliation, made possible by the supremacy and atoning work of Jesus Christ. The Explicit Gospel is well suited for new believers, as well as biblical scholars, and is an invaluable tool in the endeavor to know God, our purpose, and how each person has a part to play in God’s plan of redemption in the universal church. It is a true call to Christianity and has the ability to unite the church; where in the past division and strife has been the prevailing paradigm.

The Explicit Gospel. By Matt Chandler and Jared Wilson, Wheaton, IL: Crossway Publishing, 2012, 237 pp. $14.99 (Paperback).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Carson, D. A. Scandalous: The Cross and Resurrection of Jesus. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Publishing, 2010.

Chandler, Matt and Jared Wilson. The Explicit Gospel. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Publishing, 2012.

Keller, Timothy. Counterfeit Gods: The Empty Promises of Money, Sex, and Power, and the Only Hope That Matters. New York, NY: Dutton, 2009.

The Village Church Website. http://www.thevillagechurch.net/about/matt-chandler/ (accessed July 21, 2017).

[1] The Village Church Website. http://www.thevillagechurch.net/about/matt-chandler/ (accessed July 21, 2017).

[2] Matt Chandler and Jared Wilson, The Explicit Gospel (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Publishing, 2012), 17.

[3] The Village Church Website. http://www.thevillagechurch.net/about/matt-chandler/ The Explicit Gospel (accessed July 21, 2017).

[4] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 16.

[5] Ibid., 21.

[6] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 32.

[7] Ibid., 41.

[8] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 48.

[9] Ibid., 57.

[10] Ibid., 64.

[11] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 85.

[12] Ibid., 90.

[13] Ibid., 103.

[14] Ibid., 120.

[15] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 143.

[16] Ibid., 151.

[17] Ibid., 172.

[18] Ibid., 210-212.

[19] Ibid., 213

[20] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 43.

[21] Ibid., 42.

[22] Ibid., 58.

[23] Ibid., 61.

[24] D. A. Carson, Scandalous: The Cross and Resurrection of Jesus (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Publishing, 2010), 68-69.

[25] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 83.

[26] Ibid., 36.

[27] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 103.

[28] Timothy Keller, Counterfeit Gods: The Empty Promises of Money, Sex, and Power, and the Only Hope That Matters (New York, NY: Dutton, 2009), xviii.

[29] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 213.

[30] Chandler and Wilson, The Explicit Gospel, 216-217.